PA12: Polyamide 12

General Properties

Short Name:

Name: 

PA12

Polyamide 12


Of all polyamides, polyamide 12 absorbs the least amount of water. The higher the ration of -CH2 groups to -CONH- groups, the lower the water absorption and the better the dimensional accuracy. PA12 features a lower stability and hardness than PA6 und PA6.6.

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition Temperature40 to 50°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature170 to 180°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy95 J/g
Decomposition Temperature465 to 475°C
Young's Modulus1400 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion120 to 140 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity1.17 to 1.26 J/(g*K)
Thermal Conductivity0.22 to 0.24 W/(m*K)
Density1.01 to 1.04 g/cm³
MorphologySemi-crystalline thermoplastic
General propertiesHigh impact strength. Good chemical resistance. Very good StressStress is defined as a level of force applied on a sample with a well-defined cross section. (Stress = force/area). Samples having a circular or rectangular cross section can be compressed or stretched. Elastic materials like rubber can be stretched up to 5 to 10 times their original length.stress cracking resistance. Good sliding-friction behavior
ProcessingExtrusion
ApplicationsMechanical and apparatus engineering (e.g., bearing and drive elements in humid environments requiring high stability). Automotive engineering. Electrical engineering. Packaging. Medical engineering

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass11.55 mg
Isothermal Phase3 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (50 ml/min)

Evaluation

In this measurement, evaporation of water occurred at 94°C (peak temperature 1st heating, blue). The shift in the position of the Temperatura di transizione vetrosaLa transizione vetrosa è una delle più importanti proprietà chimico-fisiche dei materiali amorfi e semi-cristallini, come, ad esempio, vetri, metalli (amorfi), polimeri, ingredienti farmaceutici e alimentari e definisce l’intervallo di temperatura in cui le proprietà meccaniche die materiali variano da duro e fragile a più morbido, malleabile o gommoso.glass transition in the 2nd heating (red, Tg of 43°C – midpoint with a Δcp value of 0.11 J/(g·K)) after water evaporation was smaller than that on page 95. The cooling rate selected in the experiment (in this case 10 K/min) was lower than the cooling rates polymer granulates generally experience during production. Therefore, the amorphous content of the sample was lower in the 2nd heating. This thesis is confirmed by the relatively high step height (Δcp) of the glass transition in the 1st heating (blue) as well as the EsotermicoUna transizione o reazione è esotermica se il materiale genera calore exothermal Post Crystallization (Cold Crystallization)The post crystallization of semi-crystalline plastics occurs primarily at elevated temperatures and increased molecular mobility above the glass transition.post-crystallization (peak temperature: 159°C, crystallization enthalpy: 2.2 J/g) that occurred immediately prior to melting. 

The endothermal melting effect at 178°C (peak temperature, 2nd heating) exhibited a melting enthalpy of approx. 34 J/g.