ABS: Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer

General Properties

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Chemical Formula:

ABS

Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer

(C8H8)n1 (C4H6)n2 (C3H3N)n3


ABS is a terpolymer, consisting of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene and styrene (see structural formula). The amount of the individual components can vary. Production is made by means of copolymerization or graft polymerization.

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.Glass Transition Temperature-85/95 to 105/(125)°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature-
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy-
Decomposition Temperature420 to 428°C
Young's Modulus2200 to 3000 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion80 to 100 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity1.26 to 1.68 J/(g*K)
Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity (λ with the unit W/(m•K)) describes the transport of energy – in the form of heat – through a body of mass as the result of a temperature gradient (see fig. 1). According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat always flows in the direction of the lower temperature.Thermal Conductivity0.15 to 0.20 W/(m*K)
Density1.03 to 1.07 g/cm³
MorphologyAmorphous thermoplastic
General propertiesGood relation between impact resistance and toughness. Heat resistant, low water absorption.
ProcessingInjection molding, extrusion, vacuum forming.
ApplicationsHousehold and consumer goods (e.g. phones, hard-top cases, crash helmets), automobile and electrical industry, toys.
ModificationsColored, blended with PMMA, fiber reinforcement, flame retardance.

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass12.28 mg
IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.Isothermal Phase7 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (50 ml/min)

Evaluation

The three glass transitions, which are not equally well visible for all ABS types, are typical for acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). Sometimes, only the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition at 100 to 105°C can be seen. 

The first Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition in the 2nd heating (red curve) with a temperature of approx. -84°C can be attributed to the polybutadiene component. The second Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition at 106°C (2nd heating) can be attributed to the polystyrene component. In contrast to the 1st heating (blue), the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition in the 2nd heating shows a RelaxationWhen a constant strain is applied to a rubber compound, the force necessary to maintain that strain is not constant but decreases with time; this behavior is known as stress relaxation. The process responsible for stress relaxation can be physical or chemical, and under normal conditions, both will occur at the same time. relaxation peak, indicating that the cooling process in the instrument (controlled cooling between the two heatings) was slower than the cooling during production of the granulate. The last and highest Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition at 118°C (1st heating) is dependent on the acrylonitrile component and – as can be seen in the enlarged scaling – overlaps with a peak in this case.

Literature

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