PA4.6: Polyamide 4.6

General Properties

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PA4.6

Polyamide 4.6


Polyamide 4.6 (PA4.6) is a polycondensation product of tetramethylene diamine and adipic acid. Polyamides derived from diamines and dicarboxylic acids of the type H2N–(CH2)x–NH2 and HOOC–(CH2)y–COOH are designated PAZ1.Z2, where Z1 refers to the number of carbon atoms in the diamine and Z2 to the number of carbon atoms in the dicarboxylic acid (Z1 = x, Z2 = y + 2, see structural formula).

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.Glass Transition Temperature70 to 94°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature290 to 295°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy-
Decomposition Temperature440 to 450°C
Young's Modulus3300 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion70 to 80 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity2.1 J/(g*K)
Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity (λ with the unit W/(m•K)) describes the transport of energy – in the form of heat – through a body of mass as the result of a temperature gradient (see fig. 1). According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat always flows in the direction of the lower temperature.Thermal Conductivity0.3 W/(m*K)
Density1.18 to 1.21 g/cm³
MorphologySemi-crystalline thermoplastic
General propertiesHigh heat resistance. High stiffness and stability at higher temperatures. Good creep resistance. Good chemical resistance
ProcessingExtrusion
ApplicationsMechanical and apparatus engineering. Automotive engineering. Electro and electrical engineering. Fibers, zip ties

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass10.68 mg
IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.Isothermal Phase5 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (50 ml/min)

Evaluation

In this example, an endothermal melting effect was observed with a peak temperature of 292°C (2nd heating, red) and an enthalpy of 91 J/g. The midpoint temperature of 58°C of the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition in the 1st heating (blue) increased to 74°C in the 2nd heating (red) as a result of water evaporation (small peak at 129°C with an enthalpy of 0.6 J/g) during the 1st heating. The shoulder at around 240°C prior to the main melting peak in the 1st heating is due to the thermomechanical history of the sample since it was absent in the 2nd heating.