PPS: Polyphenylenesulfide

General Properties

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PPS

Polyphenylenesulfide


Polyphenylene sulfide is a semi-crystalline, high temperature-resistant thermoplastic. The joining of aromatic monomer units via sulfur bridges make PPS very resistant and accounts for its high mechanical strength. PPS, which is costlier than PA, is used in technical molded parts when long-term heat resistance and low water absorption is required.

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.Glass Transition Temperature85 to 100°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature275 to 290°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy80 J/g
Decomposition reactionA decomposition reaction is a thermally induced reaction of a chemical compound forming solid and/or gaseous products. Decomposition Temperature515 to 550°C
Young's Modulus3700 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE/CTE)The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) describes the length change of a material as a function of the temperature.Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion50 to 70 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity-
Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity (λ with the unit W/(m•K)) describes the transport of energy – in the form of heat – through a body of mass as the result of a temperature gradient (see fig. 1). According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat always flows in the direction of the lower temperature.Thermal Conductivity-
DensityThe mass density is defined as the ratio between mass and volume. Density1.34 to 1.36 g/cm³
MorphologySemi-crystalline polymer
General propertiesVery good chemical resistance. High stability, stiffness and hardness. Very good solvent resistance. Very good electrical insulation properties. High Gamma and X-ray resistance. Minimal absorption of humidity
ProcessingInjection molding, blow molding, extrusion
ApplicationsElectrical/electronics (e.g., encapsulation of chips, coil bodies). Structural components for chemical surroundings (valves, pump casings, fittings, etc.). Automotive industry. Food industry

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass12.76 mg
IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.Isothermal Phase3 min / 5 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (40 ml/min)

Evaluation

In addition to the endothermal melting transition (peak temperature 282°C, melting enthalpy 38 J/g), the 1st heating (blue) showed a Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition at 107°C (midpoint), followed by an endothermal effect with a peak temperature of 159°C. TGA investigations (not shown here) confirmed that this endothermal effect at 159°C was not related to evaporation of humidity or residual monomers. Moreover, the increase in Crystallinity / Degree of CrystallinityCrystallinity refers to the degree of structural order of a solid. In a crystal, the arrangement of atoms or molecules is consistent and repetitive. Many materials such as glass ceramics and some polymers can be prepared in such a way as to produce a mixture of crystalline and amorphous regions.crystallinity could be a tempering peak due to storage of the polymer at a temperature above 159°C. This assumption is also supported by the larger melting enthalpy in the 2nd heating (red) of approx. 45 J/g. Due to the shoulder (233°C) of the melting effect in the 2nd heating, it seems that this melting phase originates from the endothermal effect at 159°C (1st heating). The Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition temperature in the 2nd heating, with a midpoint temperature of 99°C, is 8 K lower than the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition exhibited in the 1st heating. The step heights (Δcp) of the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transitions (0.11 J/(g*K) in the 1st heating and 0.13 J/(g*K) in the 2nd heating) are similar.