Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) / Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
Due to its versatility and the high significance of its analytical output, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the most often employed method for thermal analysis.
It can be used to investigate a great variety of materials:
- Compact solids (granulates, components, molds, etc.) such as plastics, rubbers, resins or other organic materials, ceramics, glass, composites, metals and building materials
- Powders such as pharmaceuticals or minerals
- Fibers, textiles
- Viscous samples such as pastes, creams or gels
Typical Information That Can Be Derived from DSC Measurements:
- Characteristic temperatures (melting, CrystallizationCrystallization is the physical process of hardening during the formation and growth of crystals. During this process, heat of crystallization is released.crystallization, polymorphous transitions, reactions, Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition)
- Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting, crystallization, transformation and reaction heats (enthalpies)
- Crystallinity / Degree of CrystallinityCrystallinity refers to the degree of structural order of a solid. In a crystal, the arrangement of atoms or molecules is consistent and repetitive. Many materials such as glass ceramics and some polymers can be prepared in such a way as to produce a mixture of crystalline and amorphous regions.Crystallinity of semi-crystalline substances
- Decomposition, thermal stability
- Oxidative stability (Oxidative-Induction Time (OIT) and Oxidative-Onset Temperature (OOT)Oxidative Induction Time (isothermal OIT) is a relative measure of the resistance of a (stabilized) material to oxidative decomposition. Oxidative-Induction Temperature (dynamic OIT) or Oxidative-Onset Temperature (OOT) is a relative measure of the resistance of a (stabilized) material to oxidative decomposition.OIT, Oxidative-Induction Time (OIT) and Oxidative-Onset Temperature (OOT)Oxidative Induction Time (isothermal OIT) is a relative measure of the resistance of a (stabilized) material to oxidative decomposition. Oxidative-Induction Temperature (dynamic OIT) or Oxidative-Onset Temperature (OOT) is a relative measure of the resistance of a (stabilized) material to oxidative decomposition.OOT – oxidative-induction time and OxidationOxidation can describe different processes in the context of thermal analysis.oxidation onset temperature, respectively)
- Degree of curing in resins, adhesives, etc.
- Eutectic PurityA eutectic system is a homogeneous mixture of 2 components that melts and solidifies like a pure substance.Eutectic purity
- Specific heat (cp)
- Compatibility between components
- Influence of aging
- Distribution of the molecular weight (peak form for polymers)
- Impact of additives, softeners or admixtures of re-granulates (for polymer materials)
We offer various DSC models, covering a broad temperature range
from -180°C to 1750°C:
- The DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® and DSC 404 F3 Pegasus® are two versions for the precise determination of specific heat and caloric effects, particularly in the high-temperature range.
- The DSC 204 F1 Phoenix® is our premium device for the temperature range from -180°C to 700°C. It unites excellent performance and highest flexibility. Coupled to a UV add-on (Photo-DSC 204 F1 Phoenix®), it allows for monitoring the light-induced curing of, for example, paints, adhesives and resins.
- With the DSC 204 HP Phoenix®, measurements under increased pressure can be carried out (up to max. 150 bar).
- The DSC 214 Polyma is a completely new concept. Designed especially for the characterization of polymer materials, its integral approach consists not only of the DSC instrument alone, but also incorporates the entire analytical process chain from sample preparation to evaluation.
All differential scanning calorimeters discussed here operate based on the respective instrument standards as well as application or material testing specifications, including ISO 11357, ASTM E968, ASTM E793, ASTM D3895, ASTM D3417, ASTM D3418, DIN 51004, DIN 51007 and DIN 53765.
All NETZSCH DSC instruments work in accordance with the heat-flux principle and feature high detection sensitivity and long service lives – ideal conditions for successful application in research and academia, material development and quality control.