differential scanning calorimetry

DSC 404 F1 Pegasus®

High-Temperature DSC up to 2000°C


Fascinating Flexibility in Thermal Analysis 

The DSC 404 F1 Pegasus®, High-Temperature Differential Scanning Calorimeter, is designed for the exact determination of specific heat of high-performance materials at high temperatures.

The concept of the DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® allows configuration for up to seven different furnace types, easily interchangeable by the user, for a wide temperature range within -150°C to 2000°C (please see accessories). 

We offer diverse sensors for DSC and DTA measurements, various crucible types as well as a great variety of technical accessories.

The coupling to a FT-IR or MS is possible without problems.

An important hardware extension, like the automatic sample changer (ASC) for up to 20 sample and reference crucibles, and software features, such as BeFlat® for an optimized baseline or the optional temperature modulation of the DSC signal (TM-DSC) make the DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® the most versatile DSC system for research & development, quality assurance, failure analysis and process optimization.

NETZSCH at the Max-Planck Institute

How is the Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids using the NETZSCH DSC 404 Pegasus®??


The DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® comprises a high-capacity heat flux DSC for highly sophisticated application measurements:

The DSC 404 F1 as well as the F3 Pegasus® systems operate according to the heat flux principle. With this method, a sample and a reference are subjected to a controlled temperature program (heating, cooling or IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.isothermal). The actual measured properties are the temperature of the sample and the temperature difference between sample and reference. From the raw data signals, the heat flow difference between sample and reference can be determined.

More on the Functional Principle of a Heat-Flux DSC

A DSC measuring cell consists of a furnace and an integrated heat-flux sensor with designated positions for the sample and reference pans.

The sensor areas are connected to thermocouples or may even be part of the thermocouple. This allows for recording both the temperature difference between the sample and reference side (DSC signal) and the absolute temperature of the sample or reference side.

Due to the heat capacity (cp) of the sample, the reference side (usually an empty pan) generally heats faster than the sample side during heating of the DSC measuring cell; i.e., the reference temperature (TR, green) increases a bit faster than the sample temperature (TP, red). The two curves exhibit parallel behavior during heating at a constant heating rate – until a sample reaction occurs. In the case shown here, the sample starts to melt at t1. The temperature of the sample does not change during melting; the temperature of the reference side, however, remains unaffected and continues exhibiting a linear increase. When melting is completed, the sample temperature also begins to increase again and, beginning with the point in time t2, again exhibits a linear increase.

The differential signal (ΔT) of the two temperature curves is presented in the lower part of the image. In the middle section of the curve, calculation of the differences generates a peak (blue) representing the EndothermicA sample transition or a reaction is endothermic if heat is needed for the conversion.endothermic melting process. Depending on whether the reference temperature was subtracted from the sample temperature or vice versa during this calculation, the generated peak may point upward or downward in the graphs. The peak area is correlated with the heat content of the transition (enthalpy in J/g).

Figure: Signal generation in a heat flux DSC


Technical Data

A graphite furnace with W/Re sensors
For DTA-measurements up to 2000°C is available
with unique OTS® system is available
Optional available is the TM-DSC software feature
For temperature modulation of the DSC signal

The DSC Specific Heat Capacity (cp)Heat capacity is a material-specific physical quantity, determined by the amount of heat supplied to specimen, divided by the resulting temperature increase. The specific heat capacity is related to a unit mass of the specimen.cp sensors enable extremely accurate determination of the specific heat:   

RT to 1400°C: ± 2.5%

RT to 1500°C: ± 3.5%

An automatic sample changer (ASC) for up to 20 samples and references is available (option).


Proteus®: Excellent Thermal Analysis Software

The DSC 404 F1 Pegasus® runs under Proteus® Software on Windows®. The Proteus® Software includes everything you need to carry out a measurement and evaluate the resulting data. Through the combination of easy-to-understand menus and automated routines, a tool has been created that is extremely user-friendly and, at the same time, allows sophisticated analysis. The Proteus® Software is licensed with the instrument and can of course be installed on other computer systems.

DSC features:

Further Advanced Software Options

The Proteus® modules and expert software solutions offer further advanced processing of the thermoanalytical data for more sophisticated analyses. 

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Application Literature