PA6: Polyamide 6

General Properties

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PA6

Polyamide 6


Polyamide 6 (PA6) is not a condensation product, but is generated by ring-opening polymerization of ε-caprolactam.

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.Glass Transition Temperature45 to 80°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature225 to 235°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy190 J/g
Decomposition Temperature445 to 460°C
Young's Modulus2800 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE/CTE)The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) describes the length change of a material as a function of the temperature.Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion80 to 90 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity1.59 to 1.70 J/(g*K)
Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity (λ with the unit W/(m•K)) describes the transport of energy – in the form of heat – through a body of mass as the result of a temperature gradient (see fig. 1). According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat always flows in the direction of the lower temperature.Thermal Conductivity0.22 to 0.33 W/(m*K)
DensityThe mass density is defined as the ratio between mass and volume. Density1.12 to 1.15 g/cm³
MorphologySemi-crystalline thermoplastic
General propertiesGood mechanical strength. High wear resistance. High impact strength. Good damping behavior. Good sliding properties
ProcessingInjection molding, extrusion, blow molding, melting
ApplicationsTextiles (fibers). Mechanical engineering (gear wheels, screws, slide bearings…)

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass10.73 mg
IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.Isothermal Phase5 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (50 ml/min)

Evaluation

The as-received PA6 granulate was highly amorphous, as demonstrated in the 1st heating (blue) by a Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition with a high Δcp (0.16 J/(g.K) at 36°C) and post-CrystallizationCrystallization is the physical process of hardening during the formation and growth of crystals. During this process, heat of crystallization is released.crystallization at 190°C. In the temperature range between approx. 70°C and 150°C, a broad, flat peak can be seen, probably due to evaporation of water, which is responsible for the positive shift in the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition temperature of around 15 K between the 1st and 2nd heating. After controlled cooling, a multiple structured melting peak, indicating several melting phases, was observed in the 2nd heating (red). The temperature of the main peak occurred at 223°C, within the range typical for PA6.