PA11: Polyamide 11

General Properties

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PA11

Polyamide 11


Polyamide 11, also often referred to as nylon 11, belongs to the group of linear aliphatic polymers with regularly repeating carbonamide groups -CO−NH- along the main chain. For all polyamides, which can be derived from amino-carbon acids of the type H2N–(CH2)x–COOH or the corresponding lactams, the associated number Z (here 11) refers to the amount of carbon atoms in the monomer (Z = x+1, see structural formula).

Structural Formula


Properties

Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.Glass Transition Temperature40 to 55°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Temperature180 to 190°C
Melting Temperatures and EnthalpiesThe enthalpy of fusion of a substance, also known as latent heat, is a measure of the energy input, typically heat, which is necessary to convert a substance from solid to liquid state. The melting point of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid (crystalline) to liquid (isotropic melt).Melting Enthalpy224 J/g
Decomposition Temperature430 to 455°C
Young's Modulus1400 MPa
Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion (CLTE/CTE)The coefficient of linear thermal expansion (CLTE) describes the length change of a material as a function of the temperature.Coefficient of Linear Thermal Expansion85 to 120 *10-6/K
Specific Heat Capacity1.26 J/(g*K)
Thermal ConductivityThermal conductivity (λ with the unit W/(m•K)) describes the transport of energy – in the form of heat – through a body of mass as the result of a temperature gradient (see fig. 1). According to the second law of thermodynamics, heat always flows in the direction of the lower temperature.Thermal Conductivity0.23 to 0.28 W/(m*K)
DensityThe mass density is defined as the ratio between mass and volume. Density1.03 to 1.05 g/cm³
MorphologySemi-crystalline thermoplastic
General propertiesGood combination of stability, toughness and hardness. High aging resistance. Good chemical resistance. Low water absorption compared to other polyamide types
ProcessingExtrusion
ApplicationsTransportation, Packaging, tubes and films, Medicine, Electrical and electronics industry

NETZSCH Measurement

InstrumentDSC 204 F1 Phoenix®
Sample Mass11.29 mg
IsothermalTests at controlled and constant temperature are called isothermal.Isothermal Phase3 min
Heating/Colling Rates10 K/min
CrucibleAl, pierced lid
AtmosphereN2 (40 ml/min)

Evaluation

Polyamides can absorb humidity. This aff ects the position of the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition due to the plasticizing properties of water. In the measuring curves shown above, a small peak can be seen in the 1st heating (blue) at 82°C, probably due to the evapo- ration of water. As a result, the Glass Transition TemperatureThe glass transition is one of the most important properties of amorphous and semi-crystalline materials, e.g., inorganic glasses, amorphous metals, polymers, pharmaceuticals and food ingredients, etc., and describes the temperature region where the mechanical properties of the materials change from hard and brittle to more soft, deformable or rubbery.glass transition temperature increases from 51°C in the 1st heating (blue, midpoint) to 53°C in the 2nd heating (red, again midpoint). Endothermal melting of the semi-crystalline polymer occurs at 184°C (peak temperature) in the 2nd heating with a melting enthalpy of 52 J/g.